The most common childhood diseases

Mom 2023
The most common childhood diseases
The most common childhood diseases
Anonim

In any weather, children are prone to diseases of the upper respiratory tract. The main thing is not to miss the moment when a common cold develops into a disease fraught with serious complications.

What are the most common illnesses in children?

According to pediatricians, the most common diseases of childhood are diseases of the upper respiratory tract. They are of viral or bacterial origin, the child can become infected, hypothermic. The main thing is not to miss the moment when a common cold develops into a disease fraught with serious complications.

Unfortunately, neither the efforts of parents nor the achievements of modern medicine can protect the child from diseases. But it is in our power to help the child cope with the disease, weaken its manifestations and prevent complications, sometimes life-threatening. This requires knowledge of the origin and mechanisms of the development of diseases, knowledge of clinical manifestations, possible complications and methods of treatment and prevention.

angina

or acute tonsillitis - an acute infectious disease with severe inflammatory diseases of the palatine tonsils. There are catarrhal, follicular and lacunar forms. Angina is most often caused by hemolytic streptococcus, less often by other microbes and viruses. Microbes or their toxins can get into the tonsils by airborne droplets from a sick person, a bacteria carrier. This is facilitated by the cooling of the child, a decrease in the body's resistance. It can occur as an independent disease or be a manifestation of other diseases (scarlet fever, infectious mononucleosis, diphtheria, leukemia, etc.).

Symptoms and course: Angina begins acutely, the temperature rises to 40-41°C. The child complains of a feeling of weakness, headache, weakness, pain in the throat, in the joints and throughout the body, chills or chills. Appetite is reduced, sleep is restless. Swallowing is difficult due to severe pain in the throat, as a result of which saliva often flows from the corners of the mouth. When examining the mouth, enlarged, red, swollen tonsils are visible, which are felt by patients as a foreign body. The voice may take on a tinge of nasality. A sharp increase in inflamed tonsils can cause difficulty breathing and temporary hearing loss.

Some patients vomit. Tongue dry, covered with white coating. Lymph nodes sharply increase at the angle of the lower jaw on the neck. Such is the picture with catarrhal angina. If yellow dots are found on the tonsils, resembling millet grain in color, shape and size, then a diagnosis of follicular tonsillitis is made. Solid purulent raids on the tonsils are characteristic of lacunar tonsillitis. The disease lasts 5-7 days. With a favorable course, the patient recovers quickly.

How to treat: When treating angina, you need: bed rest, plenty of fluids (tea with lemon, fruit drink, compotes, etc.). Most episodes require the use of antibiotics, antihistamines. Antipyretic and analgesic drugs, gargling with antiseptic solutions or irrigation sprays are used.

Possible complications: Underestimation of the severity of the disease and inadequate treatment of angina leads to a number of unpleasant complications. Most often, this is the development of chronic tonsillitis, which in the future may lead to the need to remove the tonsils. Often the occurrence of diseases such as paratonsillitis and paratonsillar abscess.

LARYNGOTRACHEITIS

As a result of inflammation and swelling, narrowing (stenosis) of the larynx occurs, which makes breathing difficult - a false croup develops. The most predisposed to the development of false croup are children who have suffered a birth injury, were born prematurely, suffering from allergic diseases (exudative diathesis). In such children, croup can occur several times, at any stage of any acute respiratory viral infection and, as a rule, proceed more severely.

Symptoms and course: the disease begins suddenly, often at night, when there is difficulty in breathing and a dry, ringing "barking" cough. The child becomes restless, does not sleep well. Breathing becomes more shallow and quickens (normally, the respiratory rate in children of three to five years is 25-28 breaths per minute), so the body tries to compensate for the lack of oxygen. If medical care is not provided in time, laryngeal stenosis progresses.

And sometimes it happens within a few hours or minutes. A rare barking cough is replaced by an obsessive and rude. The face turns red, and the mucous membrane of the lips and nails become bluish. Breathing becomes even more difficult and very superficial, the number of respiratory movements increases to 40-50 per minute. Due to prolonged oxygen starvation, the child turns pale, loses consciousness, and suffocation may occur. In such a situation, urgent medical attention is needed, otherwise the child may die.

How to treat: If there are signs of difficulty breathing and a "barking" cough, you need to call an ambulance and urgently hospitalize the child, regardless of the form and stage of the disease.

BRONCHITIS

in children, as a rule, develop after an infection of the upper respiratory tract, such as a complication of acute respiratory infections and influenza, less often - measles and whooping cough.

Symptoms and course: Cough is added to the usual symptoms of acute respiratory infections, at first dry, obsessive, then more humid. The cough is usually uniform throughout the day, but sometimes worse in the morning. When listening, dry and medium bubbling wet rales are detected on inspiration. Exhalation is usually lengthened. In obstructive forms of bronchitis, characteristic wheezing is added.

How to treat: In treatment, antibiotics are usually used, the dose and duration of the course are selected by the doctor. Expectorant mixtures, chest preparations, sputum thinners - mucolytics are also prescribed. During the entire period of illness, the child should be given plenty of warm solutions: fruit drinks, teas, juices, milk. If there is no high temperature, distractions can be used from the first days: hot foot baths, mustard plasters, rubbing the chest.

BRONCHOPNEUMONIA AND PNEUMONIA

When the inflammatory process has affected the lung tissue, bronchopneumonia and pneumonia occur.

Symptoms and course: the disease is characterized by deterioration, temperature rises, shortness of breath. When listening over the affected area of ​​the lung, a weakening of breathing is detected, but the diagnosis is made only if there are characteristic changes on the chest x-ray.

How to treat: Antibiotics are prescribed in all cases. Only mild forms of pneumonia are treated at home, in other cases, inpatient treatment is recommended.

What should I do if my child is choking?

  • CALL AMBULANCE IMMEDIATELY
  • CASING THE CHILD! When a person suffocates, he begins to panic. It is necessary to calmly tell the child that the mother is nearby, which means that nothing will happen to him. Notice that when he stops yelling and crying, his breathing becomes a little easier.
  • GET ACCESS TO FRESH AIR. While the mother is calming the child, other family members should (without external manifestations of panic !!!) open the window for fresh air. If the air is too cold, the window should be opened in the next room.
  • GIVE THE CHILD A WARM DRINK. Drinking can be anything - from warmed sweetened tea to juice diluted with water. An alkaline drink is considered the best: warm milk mixed with Borjomi (or other mineral water), milk. If it is difficult for the baby to drink on his own, drink with a spoon.
  • HOT FOOT BATH. Not required, but highly recommended. The fact is that this item is difficult to combine with other procedures that are necessary. It should also be remembered that hot foot baths should not be done if the child has an elevated body temperature (above 38 degrees).
  • MUSTARD AND INHALATION WITH SODA SOLUTION. Mustard plasters are placed on the chest. Soda solution for inhalation is prepared at the rate of 1 tsp. drinking soda per 1 liter. water. Inhalation is carried out with the help of special inhalers, it is also possible in the old "old-fashioned" way, covering oneself with a head over a pot with a hot (not boiling!) solution. If the child is restless and crying, then the pot with the solution can be placed in a small room, which is easily filled with steam. The baby should be held in your arms - he will breathe air saturated with steam.

IF A CHILD LOST VOICE

  • Hoarseness, loss of voice is not a disease, but a symptom characteristic of various diseases, most often laryngitis (inflammation of the larynx).
  • When the voice sits down, this is a sign that the larynx, its voice-forming function, has suffered. The inflammatory process can also affect the respiratory function of the throat, trachea, bronchi, lungs.
  • At the first signs of hoarseness, the child should be shown to an ENT doctor.
  • Especial attention should be paid to changes in the timbre of the voice after acute laryngitis. If the hoarseness persists, a special examination is recommended, since it is not possible to see the vocal folds during a normal examination. There is a special optics for this, it is available in children's ENT departments of clinics and hospitals.
  • At an early stage, hoarseness does not require serious intervention, local treatment, procedures and a special regimen are used, which doctors recommend following both during the acute period of the disease and several days after. Firstly, cold weather, when everything cold is prohibited: ice cream, drinking from the refrigerator, cold air. Secondly, voice: you can’t speak in full voice (only in a whisper), sing, especially shout.
  • Hoarseness can be caused by nasal congestion, when the child can only breathe through the mouth.
  • Hoarseness can be caused by nodules on the vocal folds, they are called "screamer nodules". So the frivolity of parents, shrugging off the noisy child with the words “Scream and stop,” may later cost the child a vote.

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