Fun experiences - for fun vacations.
PHYSICS FOR ALL!
Nature surprisingly wisely put everything in its place; scientists found, proved, substantiated; at school the teachers showed us and told us…
And we still never cease to wonder: why heavy ships do not sink and how huge planes manage to get off the ground; how is it that a white beam, refracted through a drop of rain, "turns" into a seven-color rainbow and gravity will make the apple fall, no matter how high we throw it. The world is full of secrets and mysteries.
And so that during the long summer holidays our children do not forget how to: decide, think, experiment - we invite you to conduct entertaining experiments with them!
A few important tips:
- It is better to conduct experiments in the morning, when the child is full of strength and energy;
- It is important for us not only to teach, but also to interest the child, to arouse in him a desire to gain knowledge and make new experiments himself. For example, tell your child that most of the tricks of the great magician David Copperfield are actually based on the laws of physics;
- Explain to your child that unknown substances should not be tasted, no matter how beautiful and appetizing they look;
- Don't just show the child an interesting experience, but also explain in a language that is accessible to him why this happens;
- Do not ignore the child's questions - look for answers to them in books, reference books, the Internet;
- Where there is no danger, give the child more independence;
- Invite your child to show their favorite experiences to friends;
- And most importantly: rejoice in the success of the child, praise him and encourage the desire to learn. Only positive emotions can instill a love for new knowledge.
THE TOWER OF PISA
You will need: deep plate, five sugar cubes, food coloring, a glass of drinking water.
Build a tower of sugar cubes on a plate by stacking them on top of each other. Dilute some food coloring in a glass of water to change the color of the water. Now carefully pour some of the liquid into the plate (not onto the tower!). Watch what happens. First, the base of the tower is painted, then the water will rise up and paint the next cube. When the sugar is saturated with water, the tower will collapse.
What happens: Water is a good solvent. Water molecules penetrate the sugar and spread among its molecules, mixing with them (this can be clearly seen by how the color of the sugar changes). In addition, water molecules are very strongly attracted to each other, which helps them climb up the tower.
Many children love movies about spies, enjoy playing scouts. And probably many of the guys will want to learn how to make secret messages - and then exchange them in secret from everyone
You will need: lemon, saucer, sheet of white paper, thin brush.
Cut the lemon in half. And pressing hard on it, try to survive some juice in the saucer. Dipping the brush into the juice, we write a secret message. When the juice dries, the letter will almost disappear. In order to find out the secret written on this sheet, it is necessary to iron the paper with a hot iron. Heat will turn colorless letters brown.
What else can invisible ink be made from: apple juice; saturated solution of ordinary drinking soda; onion juice.
The first Chinese Emperor Qin Shi Huang, during whose reign the Great Wall of China was built, was a very suspicious person. He moved from one palace to another, never slept in the same room for two nights in a row, and of course he used cryptography. He wrote his messages with thick rice broth, which, after the written hieroglyphs have dried, does not leave any visible traces. If such a letter is slightly moistened with a weak alcohol solution of iodine, then blue letters appear. And the emperor used a brown decoction of seaweed containing iodine to develop writing.
But members of the Russian secret organization "Black Redistribution" also used invisible ink in their correspondence. Secret letters were written with a dilute aqueous solution of copper sulphate (copper sulphate is now used as a fertilizer). Such a text appeared if the paper was held over a vial of ammonia - an aqueous solution of ammonia. The letters turn bright blue due to the formation of the ammonia complex of the composition.
AMAZING PROPERTIES OF ICE
We all know that when water freezes, it turns into ice, but we rarely think about what amazing properties ordinary ice has. With the help of simple but very revealing experiments, you can teach children about this
You will need: four plastic cups, a felt-tip pen, s alt, four bowls and a piece of fur.
Pour the same amount of water into each glass and make a mark on one of them with a felt-tip pen. Place the cups in the freezer overnight. In the morning, see if the water level changed when it turned to ice?
Now ask your child to guess where the ice will melt faster: in a bowl of hot water; with cold water; in an empty bowl or in a bowl that is wrapped in fur (you can wrap it with ordinary cotton wool). Do an experiment together. Note on the clock how long the ice melted. You will see that the ice "in a fur coat" will melt more slowly than in an empty bowl.
Pay attention to the child that the ice did not sink in the bowl of water. Although most of it is under water, the ice floats well. Explain that this is why icebergs are so dangerous - after all, only its top is visible above the surface of the water, and about 80% of the volume of the ice block is hidden under water. By the way, there will be a story about the dramatic fate of the Titanic.
Do you know how to “help” melt the ice? Sprinkle it with s alt
What happens: water has an amazing property: unlike other materials, when the temperature drops (after 4 °C), it expands! Therefore, our ice will take up more space in the glass than the water from which it is made. If you put a bottle of water in the freezer, it will soon crack. This happens because water, freezing, increases in volume by about a tenth. Surprise the child by telling that under the pressure of ice distributed in all directions, even a strong stone cracks and metal breaks! No wonder water pipes burst so often in winter when water freezes in them.
Water conducts heat better than air, which is why ice in an empty bowl melts more slowly than in a bowl of water. The fur does not warm, but rather prevents the penetration of heat from the air. Conversely, in winter, a “fur coat” can save water from frost. Therefore, in order for water pipes not to burst in the cold, they must be warmed, that is, wrapped in something, for example, felt.
Another anomaly: the density of ice is less than the density of water. Thanks to this, the ice floats, and the water in the rivers does not freeze to the bottom in winter. If, during solidification, water contracted - like almost all other substances, then ice, formed in water, would not float on its surface, but would sink. And then we would lose those wonderful entertainments that winter brings us every year.
S alty ice melts faster because its melting temperature is lower than that of uns alted ice.
We propose to make another simple but fascinating experiment with the children that demonstrates the properties of water
You will need: a glass, two tablespoons of sugar for ten tablespoons of drinking water, food coloring, foil and several saucers (their number is equal to the number of food coloring).
In a glass of water, stir the sugar thoroughly until completely dissolved. Place foil on each saucer and pour two tablespoons of the sweet solution. Add dyes. Stir gently. After that, leave the saucers in a warm place for three days. During this time, the water will evaporate, and you will be left with colored sugar crystals. They can be crushed and mixed, you get colorful sugar.
What is happening: Water molecules evaporate, i.e., go from a liquid state to a vapor state, but the sugar molecules mixed with the dye remain.
GROW A JEWEL
Almost everyone in their childhood was delighted with the sight of crystals grown by their own hands (or the hands of a chemistry teacher). But to do it at home, with a child is very simple. Try creating sparkling "jewels" in white or blue
You will need: s alt, glass jar, thick thread, pencil.
Slowly pour s alt into very hot, but not boiling water and stir it well. Your task is to make it very concentrated, so s alt must be added until it no longer dissolves. Tie a thread to the pencil and lower it into the water so that it does not touch either the bottom or the walls of the vessel (the pencil acts as a jumper and lies on the jar). Very soon, small crystals of s alt form on the thread. Every day they will grow and increase in size. And after a while you will have a wonderful "necklace".
And if you use copper sulfate instead of s alt (it is sold in gardening stores as a fertilizer), you can grow a single crystal of a magnificent blue color. As in the first case, we make a supersaturated solution and lower the thread into it. When crystals appear on it, remove the thread from the solution and break off the largest and most even crystal. Tie it to a new thread and immerse it in the solution so that it is in the center of the vessel. A single crystal grows for a long time, but the result is stunningly beautiful.
Do not forget to add the solution, because the liquid will slowly evaporate. To do this, prepare the same solution in another jar and let it settle for a day. After that, add the required amount of liquid to our vessel. If everything was done correctly, in about a month you will receive a magnificent bright blue gem-like crystal.
What happens: In hot water, the solubility of s alt or copper sulfate increases. And when cooling, the excess of the substance is released from the solution and settles on the center of crystallization, which in the first case is our thread, and in the second - a small crystal.
It is impossible not to admire these fragile and short-lived creatures. They captivate, attract the eye and make both adults and children smile. And the process of their creation is always like a small miracle. Teach your child how to make great, unusual and amazing soap bubbles - and you will see a real delight in his eyes
You will need: distilled water, plain laundry soap (or better yet dishwashing liquid), sugar, gelatin, wire.
Cut the soap with a knife and dissolve in warm distilled water. The soap concentration should be 15-20%. Can be dissolved in water with Fairy dishwashing liquid.
Do not use tap water, it contains a lot of s alts and because of this, the bubbles are very fragile. Add a mixture of sugar and gelatin to the soap solution (you can use glycerin), this will extend the life of the soap bubble. Now take the wire and cut off several pieces of different lengths from it. At the end of each roll a loop - so that their diameters are different. You can make several frames of different shapes - square, oval, in the form of an asterisk, banana, flower, etc. The necessary condition in this case is the closedness of the frame.
After that, you can proceed to the most important thing: dip the wire into the mixture and lightly blow on the resulting film. Watch with your child as the film stretches and turns into a bubble. First, the soap balls easily rise up, shimmering with all the colors of the rainbow, and then slowly fall down. Experiment with frames of different geometric shapes and see what shapes come out of them.
What happens: The life of the bubble depends on its humidity and in order for the soap film not to dry out as long as possible, sugar with gelatin is added to the solution. This mixture softens the water and slows down the process of bubble collapse.
A soap bubble is two very thin soap films with water between them. Light rays passing through such a "structure" are refracted and reflected. Therefore, it seems to us that the bubbles are multi-colored. Soap bubbles tend to take on a shape that has the smallest surface area with the largest volume. Such properties have, you guessed it, the ball. That is why soap bubbles always tend to take on rounded shapes and look like almost regular spheres. And, finally, the flying abilities of bubbles are completely dependent on air temperature: the air blown out of our lungs is warmer, which means, according to the laws of physics, and lighter than the surrounding air. But the bubbles cool quickly and therefore sink down.
These experiments are rather related to botany and demonstrate that certain conditions are needed for plant life. Because they take quite a long time, encourage your child to keep a diary of observations. The process of sprouting, changing color and shape of plants will be an amazing adventure for your child, and in addition, it will bring up attentiveness, love for nature and, perhaps, arouse in him an interest in the natural sciences
FROM A SEED
You will need: plant seeds (best to take beans), cotton wool, three glass jars, earth.
In a saucer with cotton, put a few beans, pour water and put on the windowsill. In a few days, the stem and root will hatch from the bean.
Now fill the glass jars with earth and carefully plant the sprouted seeds in them. Try to make sure that the beans are pressed against the glass - then you and your baby will be able to observe the changes taking place. For the purity of the experiment, plant a few beans upside down (root up, stem down). See what happened in a few days. Don't forget to water our plants. Very quickly, the first stems will appear from the ground, after a while leaves will grow on the stems, and new roots will appear below.
Invite the children to conduct the following experiment: label our jars (Nos. 1, 2, 3) with numbers. Put the first jar on the windowsill and water it every three days. Place the second one near the window, but do not water it. And identify the plant number three in a dark closet and water it, like the first, once every three days. After two or three weeks, review with the children how the plants have changed, which one has grown better.
LIGHT AND SHADOW
Cut out a small figure from self-adhesive paper and glue it on a large leaf of the plant. After a week, remove the paper and see what is left on the sheet
What's going on: Plants need water, light and soil. If these three conditions are met, the stem stretches upward and the leaves turn green. That is why the sprout in the first jar will grow most actively.
In a bean turned upside down, after a few days, the stem will bend upwards and will reach for the sun, and the root will change its direction and will grow downwards, towards the earth and water.
And the need for sunlight demonstrates the experience with gluing part of the sheet. The paper figure does not let the sun's rays through. Without light, the leaves turn yellow, so in a week a silhouette of a cut out figure will appear on our large sheet.
The ancient Romans believed that a butterfly is a revived flower that has come off its stem. In Japan, a butterfly symbolizes all the best in a person's life, and seeing a butterfly is fortunate. But an ancient Indian legend says that a butterfly is a soul that went to heaven. God sent her to earth to play the role of a postman. And if you quietly whisper your desire to her, she will carry it on her wings directly to God and all dreams will come true
If you spare no time and effort, then it is not so difficult to raise a little messenger at home. And the child will be mesmerized by the magical transformation of a caterpillar into a butterfly
You will need: caterpillars, large glass jar, leaves, twigs.
To get started, prepare an insectarium at home - this is the name of the room for keeping and breeding insects. A small aquarium or a large glass jar is perfect for it. In the forest or in the garden, collect a few caterpillars. At the same time, remember that the caterpillars must be taken with the leaves on which they are located - this is their future food. Put them in a jar, and put gauze on top so that the tenants do not go somewhere to travel.
Each morning, the caterpillars should be sprayed with water from a spray bottle, and the food should be changed every two days. It is best to collect the leaves of plants growing away from roads, and before serving "on the table" they must be rinsed with water. He althy caterpillars get used to the insectarium quite easily, and the child will enjoy watching the life of insects: how they crawl, how they eat, how they curl up, etc.
If the caterpillars start to worry, lose their appetite - this most likely means that they are about to turn into pupae. In this state, it is better not to disturb them. Now it remains to be patient and wait for the magical transformation to happen.
At home, you can even grow a real African Junonia One-One with large blue spots on the wings or an amazing Philippine butterfly Attacus Atlas with very beautiful, unusually shaped wings, the span of which reaches 30 cm! Such wonderful butterflies, or rather their pupae, are sold today in specialized nurseries. The cost of pupae, depending on their type and number, ranges from 3 to 30 USD. apiece, but how much joy and happiness the baby will experience on his own by growing such a fluttering miracle.
THIS IS INTERESTING
- Do you know why they say: sprinkle s alt - to a quarrel? There are several versions of the origin of this sign. So, for example: in ancient times, s alt was very expensive, almost worth its weight in gold, therefore, scattering it, people were very worried and often cursed because of it. And here is another version: a long time ago in some eastern countries, people sealed contracts with s alt. When concluding an alliance, the leaders took s alt in their mouths from one s alt shaker. And, of course, dropping the s alt shaker did not bode well.
- Iceberg literally means "ice mountain". The largest recorded iceberg was 322 km long and 97 km wide - more than the area of the country of Belgium!
- The name of New Zealander Alan McKay is included in the Guinness Book of Records. He became famous for blowing the largest soap bubble in the world on August 9, 1996, the length of which was 32 meters!
- Approximately 70% of the earth's surface is covered with water. And only 1% of the world's water is available and suitable for human consumption. Approximately 97% of the water is too s alty and 2% is in the form of ice. Is that 2% still a staggering 29 million km? waters encased in the vast ice sheets and glaciers of the Earth.
- Do you know that tropical butterflies grown at home can and should be fed? For this, “nectar” is specially prepared - sugar or honey is added to a saucer with water. The butterfly itself will smell, fly in and lower its proboscis into a saucer. But it turns out that there are also “lazy” butterflies that have to be fed like little children. They are carefully taken by the breast, put on the edge of the plate, the proboscis is turned with a needle and lowered into the nectar. When the butterfly satisfies its hunger, it flies away.
- When the world's first soap bubbles appeared, it is not known for certain. But already I in AD. they existed! So, when excavating the ruins of ancient Roman Pompeii, archaeologists discovered unusual frescoes depicting young Pompeians who blow soap bubbles.
- Bamboo is a genus of tree-like cereals growing in hot countries. Sometimes it grows up to 30 meters. Surprising, also because it is one of the fastest growing plants. It can grow up to a meter on a rainy day!