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Health 2023
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Reference moment

Our life is in constant motion. We move even in our sleep. Movement is life.

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Our life is in constant motion, and even in a dream we move - move from side to side. As a rule, it would not occur to a normal person to think about how his bones, ligaments, muscles and joints function - what is called the "musculoskeletal system"

But as soon as it shoots somewhere, or it hurts, or it swells up, then we involuntarily think that we should go to the clinic for an examination. And a sedentary lifestyle in the style of "work-car-home-elevator-sofa" will not lead to good, and it's time to go in for sports.

However, as soon as the pain subsides, good intentions are shifted to the periphery of consciousness.

But there are no accidental back pains after sleep, backaches in the neck or lower back - these are already symptoms of the disease, and it’s good if it is in the initial stage…

Our expert - Dmitry Shestakov, orthopedic traumatologist, candidate of medical sciences, head of the interdistrict clinical diagnostic department, member of the Russian Arthroscopic Society.

Risk factors

There are factors that we cannot influence, for example, hereditary predisposition. Or gender: it is no secret that women suffer from arthrosis on average 2 times more often than men. There are circumstances that are also not always in our control, for example, in people engaged in peasant labor, the joints, as a rule, are greatly deformed and worn out, wearing out much faster than they themselves age.

Injuries are also significant risk factors.

If a profession is connected with the fact that a person stands on his feet 10-12 hours a day, then it is clear that after a certain time his joints will be very worn out. True, doctors have a catchphrase: "Every person lives to see his arthrosis." And it would be surprising in a 70-year-old man to find the joints of an 18-year-old.

But we can influence our lifestyle.

What to do?

• It is necessary to observe a certain regime - the balance of workload and rest.

• Exercise. If sport is harmful, then physical education is not only useful, but also necessary. But you need to start training, especially if there are changes in the musculoskeletal system, under the guidance of an exercise therapy specialist.

• Of the sports, swimming and exercise bikes are preferable, but they should also be selected individually - depending on the condition of the joints.

• At the age of 40-45, it is useful for people at risk to use special preparations - chondroprotectors as a preventive measure. Depending on the drug, the doctor will prescribe a certain course of administration or injections - once every six months or a year.

• Listen to your body's signals: pain and discomfort are warning signs that you should see a podiatrist.

• If the diagnosis is unclear, an x-ray should be taken: a standard x-ray of the knee, hip joint allows you to almost completely understand what is happening in the joint.

• Do not start the disease and at the first symptoms you should consult a doctor. Gentle treatment methods - massage and manual therapy - will restore freedom of movement and improve the quality of life.

Therapeutic self-massage

This method is used only outside of exacerbation - when the joint is "calm". You can massage with your hands, or you can use various devices - massagers.

You need to massage not the joint itself, but the tissues surrounding it. And self-massage sessions should not be carried out immediately before or after a meal - the distance between the meal and the procedure should be at least 1.5 hours. The temperature in the room should be comfortable, and the position of the body should be the most convenient for you. In this case, the muscles in the area of ​​\u200b\u200bthe body that you are massaging should be relaxed as much as possible. In order for the hands to glide better on the surface of the body, you can use talcum powder, vegetable oils (olive, peach, cedar, etc.), creams or special ointments that your doctor will recommend.

If you have used warming ointments for massage, after the procedure, you can apply a dry bandage or compress to this area. Remember that massage is contraindicated in acute, febrile conditions, exacerbations of inflammatory processes, rashes and other skin lesions!

You can relieve an attack of pain by applying heat or cold (the reaction to temperature exposure is individual). Place chopped ice or frozen peas in a heating pad or wrap in a thick cloth and apply to the sore joint for 10 minutes (no more!) Every hour. You can warm the sore spot with a heating pad with hot water or a special lamp.

You can also use devices with magnetic properties (knee pads, belts, etc.). But be sure to discuss the technology and details of all these procedures with your doctor!

Warning: Osteoporosis

Osteoporosis - a disease of "brittle bones" - is one of the most formidable and widespread diseases in the world. It is called the "silent killer", because in the initial stage this disease is asymptomatic, gradually undermining the foundation of a person - his bone frame.

According to WHO, in the list of the most serious and dangerous diseases - "the main enemies of mankind" - osteoporosis ranks fourth after cancer, cardiovascular disease and diabetes.

Moreover, in recent decades, the incidence of osteoporosis has been clearly increasing, and this problem has already moved from a medical category to a social one.

Destructive mechanism

Osteoporosis is a progressive bone disease in which bones lose calcium and strength. It is known that bone density changes throughout life: before the age of 25, the human skeleton reaches its maximum strength due to calcium and remains so until about 40 years of age. Then the process of decreasing bone density begins, which at first proceeds almost imperceptibly.

But this process can be accelerated for many reasons: this is a hereditary predisposition, diseases of the endocrine system, taking certain drugs, etc. As a result, the bone loses calcium, becomes thinner and becomes brittle. If you look at such a bone through a microscope, it will seem that many holes have formed in it - pores. Hence the name of the disease - osteoporosis, translated from Greek - "porous bone".

With the onset of menopause (especially in the first 3 years, when the level of estrogen in a woman's body drops sharply), the destruction of bone tissue increases. At this time, about 1 kilogram of bone mass is lost every year (on average, the skeleton of an adult weighs 20-25 kg). Then this process slows down a little, but the losses are still significant.

That's why the most typical manifestations of osteoporosis are low-traumatic fractures that occur when falling from a height of one's own height. And the most common and serious complications of osteoporosis are fractures of the spine, femoral neck and radius.

And the elderly are most at risk, as age aggravates the course of the disease and bones become more fragile. In such a situation, some fractures, such as those of the femoral neck, cause disability and even death.

Symptoms of Silent Disease

Often osteoporosis is diagnosed only after a fracture of the spine or femoral neck. But, as a rule, such serious complications of the disease are preceded by some signs that manifest themselves over a long time at first weakly, then more and more definitely.

Typical signs of osteoporosis include aching back pain. Moreover, if with osteochondrosis, back pain usually occurs at night and is felt when a person just got out of bed, then after he stretches, warms up, the pain disappears. But with osteoporosis, the situation is different: the back begins to ache with a load, even a very slight one. Usually, it is a dull pain, mainly between the shoulder blades or in the lumbar region. And after a 20-30-minute rest in a horizontal position, the pain disappears.

Indirect signs of osteoporosis include senile stoop (the so-called "widow's hump"), reduced height and nighttime leg cramps.

Our parents are at risk!

If the first signs of the development of the disease appear, this is already a serious reason to see a doctor - an endocrinologist, rheumatologist or orthopedist.

Shrugging off unpleasant symptoms by escaping with home remedies, rubbing and painkillers is not only naive, but also dangerous. The sooner you start treatment, the more likely you are to avoid dangerous complications.

And our mothers and grandmothers - the main risk group - need to be examined without waiting for fractures!

And in order to reduce the risk of bone fractures at home (and this, unfortunately, is a very common occurrence in older people), a number of fairly simple rules should be followed:

• You should try to avoid tilting. Use long-handled brushes and mops for home cleaning.

• You need to put on shoes while sitting on a chair, placing your foot on a low stand. Shoe horn must be long handled.

• When lifting objects to a small height - below the shoulders - try to keep your back straight, keeping the curves of the spine. For example, it is better to bend your knees than to bend over at the waist.

• And when lifting something to a height above the shoulders, it is better to slightly bend your back in the lumbar region.

• Try not to turn your body sideways while carrying heavy loads.

• Equip the bath or shower with rubber mats to prevent slipping during water procedures, as well as handles attached to the bathroom wall. Fractures from falls in the bathroom are a very common type of home injury among older adults.

Symptoms of arthrosis

The first characteristic signs of arthrosis are the appearance of uncomfortable sensations during exercise. If a person spent the whole day on his feet or carried heavy loads and by the end of the day he had unpleasant, even painful sensations in the joints, which disappeared at rest, this is an alarming sign. The further arthrosis develops, the more often such sensations arise even from small loads. And with significant damage to the joints, pain can also occur at rest. But this is already a sign of very serious changes, in such cases, arthroplasty is required (a surgical operation during which the destroyed parts of the joint are replaced with artificial ones - endoprostheses).

To determine the condition of the cartilage, sometimes it is enough to put your hand on your knee, hear how the joint crunched (a sound reminiscent of the crunch of snow under your feet on a frosty day). At the same time, the joint may not hurt, but shifts towards arthrosis have already been outlined. And at this stage, the treatment is the most effective - the cartilage is still easy to strengthen and restore. But the destroyed cartilage is almost impossible to restore.

Other signs of arthrosis

• Morning joint stiffness. It can last 20-30 minutes and, after a person moves, warms up, disappears

• "Jambling" of the joint - a sudden sharp pain that blocks movement. Disappears also suddenly. This symptom is also characteristic of a meniscus rupture.

• Swelling in the joint area, which may be accompanied by a feeling of "hot" skin, increased pain and stiffness.

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