A specialist talks about risk factors, new methods for diagnosing and treating osteoporosis.
Lyudmila Yakovlevna Rozhinskaya, Doctor of Medical Sciences, Head of the Department of Neuroendocrinology and Osteopathies, Federal State Institution of Endocrinological Research, talks about risk factors, new methods for diagnosing and treating osteoporosis
center of Rosmedtekhnologii.
BEFORE: What factors do you mean?
LR: According to the degree of importance, they are conditionally divided into strong and moderate.
Strong risk factors:
• Old age and female gender.
• Preceding fractures at a low level of injury - in this case, the risk of subsequent fractures increases by 3-5 times.
• Heredity. If the parents (and other close relatives) had a hip fracture.
• Low bone mineral density.
• Smoking, especially for women, because women who smoke earlier go through menopause and are at risk of developing osteoporosis.
• Underweight is a pebble in the garden for those who by hook or by crook seek to reduce weight. Sudden weight loss, lack of weight contribute to bone fragility no less than heredity!
• Race. Representatives of the white - Caucasian - race are more prone to osteoporosis.
• Body structure, eye and hair color. Blondes with blue eyes, a fragile physique are much more prone to osteoporosis than stocky brunettes.
• Alcohol abuse. It directly affects bone cells and stimulates their destruction by reducing the absorption of essential trace elements from food.
Moderate risk factors:
• Insufficient calcium intake (insufficient amount of dairy products in the diet).
• Vitamin D deficiency.
• Sedentary lifestyle.
• Early menopause in women, decreased sexual function in men.
And if we cannot influence race, heredity or eye color, then nutrition, lifestyle, body weight largely depend on us.
BEFORE: If osteoporosis is often asymptomatic, how is it diagnosed?
HR: If parents and elderly relatives have risk factors, I recommend checking the condition of the bone tissue. Now specialized diagnostics is used - densitometry, which allows you to measure bone mineral density. The examination takes only 20-30 minutes, and as a result of it, we find out how many mg of calcium per 1 cm² of bone is contained in the spine or in the femur - these are the most vulnerable places for fractures.
It is also important to measure your height regularly. If it has decreased by more than 3-4 cm in comparison with growth in youth, this is a sign of a “silent”, creeping compression fracture of several vertebrae, which the patient himself did not even know about.
BEFORE: If changes in bone tissue are found and osteoporosis is diagnosed, is it possible to slow down its development?
LR: Now pharmacology has advanced to such an extent that, along with effective tablets and powders for the treatment of osteoporosis, there are drugs that, according to certain indications, can be prescribed to the patient every three months or even per year, which increases patient adherence to treatment. Such drugs are administered intravenously, drip, and this gives a good effect.
In any case, the doctor selects the treatment individually for each patient - based on the results of tests, examinations.
Calcium with vitamin D is already prescribed as an addition to the main treatments.
But the treatment tactics don't end there. Some drugs are not enough, moderate physical activity is necessary: walking, gymnastics, swimming, playing sports. Special exercises for patients suffering from osteoporosis can be found on the website: www.endocrincentr.ru. The intensity and time of training in each case should be determined by your doctor. It is important to be careful to avoid injury and falls.