First summer aid

First summer aid
First summer aid
Anonim

In the summer we travel, move more actively and get into risky situations more often. How to cope with poisoning, what to do with a snake bite and sunstroke? About this - in our selection.

Summer First Aid

Jellyfish sting

Jellyfish looks quite harmless, but can be dangerous to he alth and even human life. Medusa "bites" its prey with tentacles covered with stinging cells. It is these cells that pierce the skin and inject poison, which causes a chemical burn and an instant allergic inflammatory reaction. Redness, swelling, burning, itching and pain appear at the site of the bite. A jellyfish sting can even cause a deadly systemic reaction.

Prevention

Medusa never attacks a human. She can only bite if a person accidentally touches her. Therefore, if you see a jellyfish, do not approach it. In addition, there are jellyfish lotions that are mixed with sunscreen and applied to the body.

WHAT TO DO?

  1. If the jellyfish stuck to the skin, remove it with any blunt object. A sharp object can further damage the skin and lead to additional release of poison.
  2. Don't touch the jellyfish with your bare hands! And even treat the bite site with gloves or with a napkin, since particles of poisonous tentacles may remain on the affected area.
  3. If you get bitten by a jellyfish, take an antihistamine to reduce the intensity of the allergic reaction and a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug to reduce inflammation and pain.
  4. Rinse the bite with s alt water - fresh water will only make things worse.
  5. Cover the burn with a clean cloth, apply ice.

See a doctor immediately if: severe muscle pain, headache, nausea, high blood pressure, fever.

Nosebleed

Nosebleeds can be one of the symptoms of sunstroke or heatstroke. When the nose bleeds, many throw their heads back. This cannot be done, because the blood along the back wall of the nasopharynx will drain into the larynx, and from there it can enter the respiratory tract or stomach, causing vomiting. Don't lie down on a pillow.

WHAT TO DO?

  1. Apply a handkerchief moistened with cold water or ice wrapped in a napkin to the bridge of your nose. The cold will help constrict the blood vessels, which will reduce bleeding.
  2. Drip your nose with vasoconstrictor drops for a runny nose.
  3. If the bleeding is not very heavy, press the wings of the nose against the nasal septum with your thumb and forefinger and breathe through your mouth. Blood usually stops after 5-7 minutes.
  4. You can use the su-jok method: for 10 minutes, drag the thumb with a twine or a bank rubber band at the level of the middle of the nail. This zone reflexively corresponds to the nose area.
  5. In case of severe bleeding, insert cotton turundas soaked in a 3% hydrogen peroxide solution, in sea buckthorn or rosehip oil, or simply in water into the nostrils. Keep the tampon on for about half an hour. If it dries to the wall of the nose, do not try to tear it off. This can cause even more bleeding. Soak the swab in water, then carefully remove it.

Call an ambulance if: all of the above measures did not stop the bleeding or if heavy bleeding occurs several times during the day.

Sunburn

Due to direct exposure to ultraviolet radiation, the skin turns red, inflamed and begins to hurt. In some cases, sunburn of the skin is accompanied by blistering, peeling and itching, weakness, fever and even headache.

Prevention

In summer - on the beach, in the country, on excursions and walks - use protective equipment. Keep in mind that with intense radiation, those with sensitive skin can burn in minutes even in the shade.

WHAT TO DO?

  1. As soon as you discover sunburn, immediately go to the shade, and best of all - to a cool room.
  2. Cool your skin. A wet compress will help relieve pain and moisturize the skin. It should be kept on the affected areas for 15 to 20 minutes. If possible, take a bath with room temperature water. Do not allow a strong temperature contrast - do not pour cold water on it.
  3. Do not use scrub or soap - in this case, the top layer of skin will be removed and the body will become more vulnerable to infection.
  4. Treat the affected area with a cream or spray designed to treat burns. They will help relieve pain, moisturize the skin, accelerate regeneration.
  5. Be careful when using cooling gel or ointments on sensitive areas such as the face (nose, cheeks, chin), neck, ears and shoulders. Do not apply ointments with petroleum jelly, benzocaine or lidocaine. It is also not recommended to use sunburn oil - it is not intended to treat sunburn and can only slow healing.
  6. The skin needs rest for two to three days, avoid direct sunlight and stay indoors.

See your doctor right away if: you have a fever or chills, nausea or dry mouth, and headache (signs of dehydration).

Heatstroke

In the summer we spend much more time outdoors, walking and, of course, sunbathing. But being outside for long periods of time in hot weather can be dangerous, even if you're in the shade. Especially quickly heat stroke can develop in a child. At the same time, symptoms (nausea and weakness) sometimes do not appear immediately, but after 6-8 hours after a walk, and parents do not associate them with sun exposure.

Prevention

Avoid direct sunlight if you are outdoors for a long time in hot weather, stay hydrated (2-2.5 liters of water per day), wear a hat, swim or take a cool shower if possible.

Symptoms:headache, blurred vision, dizziness, nausea, confusion, dilated pupils, nosebleeds, vomiting, thirst, fever, muscle pain.

WHAT TO DO?

  1. Take or transfer the victim to a cool room - constant access to oxygen is required, so windows and doors should be opened, fans or air conditioners should be turned on. Help is useless if the person is still in the sun!
  2. Remove tight clothing.
  3. Put cold on the head, heart area, spine. Wipe the person's body with a damp cloth or wrap in a damp sheet. You can not take a cold shower or bath - this will lead to a high load on the blood vessels, and it is rather difficult to predict how the body will behave.
  4. If possible, give the victim a sniff of ammonia.
  5. Give lightly s alted water or cool tea.

Call an ambulance if: the temperature rises above 39 degrees, the victim passes out, or there is a nosebleed that you cannot stop within 5-6 minutes.

Food poisoning/infection

Food spoils faster in hot weather, and when grilling food, most of us are less careful about hygiene standards, and the likelihood of poisoning increases significantly.

Prevention

Cook for one meal whenever possible, don't store perishable meals, be sure to refrigerate food, and use portable refrigerators when traveling out of town.

Wash your hands and all utensils thoroughly when grilling.

WHAT TO DO?

  1. When symptoms of poisoning appear, take sorbents and intestinal antiseptics. Do not use drugs that fix the stool - they prevent the removal of toxins from the body.
  2. Drink more room temperature water. Take at least one or two sips every 30 minutes. If you feel sick and can't drink, try sucking on ice cubes.
  3. Take a dehydration solution (available at pharmacies).
  4. If you suspect that the poisoning is provoked by fungi, induce vomiting - give a few glasses of warm water, a weak solution of potassium permanganate or an activated charcoal solution.
  5. Follow your diet. For at least 3-4 days after the symptoms of poisoning have stopped, exclude all fatty, fried, s alty, alcohol and carbonated drinks. Avoid raw vegetables and fruits. Eat porridge with water.

Call an ambulance if: the temperature stays at 39-40 degrees, symptoms of dehydration appear (dry mouth, decreased pressure, decreased skin elasticity), severe headaches, convulsions. Seek medical attention if vomiting does not stop within 4-6 hours or if symptoms of poisoning cannot be controlled within two days.

Allergic reaction

Most often, allergies in summer occur due to insect bites, as a reaction to exotic products, pollen from unusual plants. In the first place among food allergens - seafood and tropical fruits.

Prevention

If you have a tendency to allergies, always carry antihistamines with you and be careful when choosing unusual dishes. When you first try a product, start with a small piece and watch for reactions.

Symptoms: redness and rash on the skin, itching, pallor, sneezing, coughing, nausea, swelling, choking.

WHAT TO DO?

  1. If possible, stop contact with the allergen. Remove the stinger if the victim is bitten by a wasp. Induce vomiting if you suspect food is causing the reaction. Take the person away from the place where the exotic plants are.
  2. Lay victim down, provide fresh air.
  3. Give antihistamines.

Call an ambulance if: there is a negative trend (brightness and area of ​​spread of the rash or swelling increases), you notice an increase in temperature, a decrease in pressure, swelling in the face and neck, labored breathing.

Animal bites

DOG

  • If the bleeding after a bite is severe, it must be stopped and the wound treated. If the bleeding is weak, do not rush to stop it, because the saliva of the animal is washed out of the wound with blood.
  • Wash the wound thoroughly with soapy water to remove the dog's saliva.
  • Place gauze over the wound and secure it with a bandage, not squeezing too hard.
  • If you know the owner of the dog, find out if the animal has been vaccinated against rabies.
  • See your doctor anyway.

SNAKE

  • If an arm or leg is injured, bandage the limb tightly above the bite but do not apply a tourniquet.
  • Apply ice to bite.
  • Give the victim as much liquid as possible.
  • If the person becomes ill, try to induce vomiting.
  • See your doctor right away.

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