The legislation of the Russian Federation obliges dairy producers to convey important information to the buyer, and on each package of milk, kefir, yogurt, cottage cheese or sour cream, you can find the composition of the product. People who carefully read labels not only know how to choose the most delicious, they know how to increase their he alth.
When studying the composition of products, you need to remember the basic rule of labeling - the names of the ingredients are written in descending order of their mass fraction. The first lines contain the main components, and the last - the components with a minimum quantitative percentage.
The composition of the product is usually indicated per 100 grams of its weight, regardless of how much the product itself weighs in this particular package.
The energy value of the product is indicated in kilocalories and kilojoules, and the nutritional value in terms of the content of proteins, fats and carbohydrates, as well as minerals and vitamins, is indicated in grams per 100 g of the product.
What other secrets does the “passport” of the product hold? Irina Salkova, head of the laboratory of the company "Cheburashkin Brothers. Family Farm" told us.
MILK AND CREAM
On the label of the product, any artificial and natural additives must be prescribed without fail: biologically active and genetically modified substances, flavors, food colors, preservatives and flavor enhancers. Most of them are marked with the letter "E" with a specific number by which you can recognize the component used. Some food additives are absolutely harmless, while others can cause allergies, provoke an increase in blood pressure, deterioration of the liver, kidneys and stomach.
Thickeners and stabilizers are often used in the dairy industry to achieve the desired consistency of yogurt or sour cream. The following components of this group do not harm he alth: E322 lecithin, E406 agar-agar, E440 apple pectin. Starch is also referred to as natural safe thickeners.
He althy natural milk has a shelf life of up to 10 days, is stored at a temperature of 2-6 degrees, it contains either whole milk or normalized milk (that is, brought to a given fat content parameter with cream or skim milk). 7 myths about dairy products.
BUTTER AND MILK POWDER
In butter and milk powder there are emulsifiers (E430-E436, E470-E495), which facilitate the ability of the product to dissolve in water. With their help, the so-called "artificial fat content" of low-fat products is achieved. All of the listed emulsifiers are banned in many countries and cause adverse he alth effects when exposed to large amounts. It is better to refrain from buying products with E listed.
The composition of yogurts necessarily includes milk and sourdough (bacteria Lactobacillus bulgaricus (Bulgarian bacillus) and Streptococcus thermophilus (thermophilic streptococcus). The content of these lactic acid bacteria in a full-fledged finished product at the end of the shelf life is at least 107 CFU (colony forming units) in 1 g of the product, as indicated on the product label.
A wide range of yoghurts, this favorite product of all, allows you to choose your favorite supplement in the form of pieces of fruit and even vegetables. Dessert yogurts may contain cream and sugar.
In addition to stabilizers and emulsifiers, gelatin can be found in yogurt. It is he who makes the texture of this delicacy tender and uniform.
Flavor enhancers (E620-E637), sweeteners (E953, E965-E967) and sweeteners (E950-E952, E954-E959) are used to increase the organoleptic appeal of the product. They are especially common in products intended for children. Manufacturers skillfully disguise harmful sugar as sugar with more attractive names - molasses, sucrose, m altose, fruit concentrate, corn syrup. A small jar of yogurt can contain 3-4 tablespoons of sugar.
Among food dyes (E100-E180), special attention should be paid to the presence of prohibited additives in dairy products in the form of E121, E123, E128. Natural dyes that do not affect human he alth - E100 (curcumin), E101 (riboflavin), E140 (chlorophyll) - arguably, E160a (carotenes), E162 (beet red), as well as E163, E164, E166, E170.
However, refrain from foods with any "food" additives with an E index. Their role in human nutrition is often ambiguous and not fully understood.
The composition of natural he althy yogurt is: normalized milk, natural filler or berry jam (if yogurt with additives), sourdough.
The two main components of the quality of sour cream are cream and sourdough. The vegetable fats and stabilizers contained in sour cream are a sign that this is a sour cream product that has nothing to do with real sour cream. To buy tasty and he althy sour cream, you need to avoid labels with the abbreviation UHT - UltraHighTemperature. This label indicates that the product has undergone high-temperature processing, which means that it lacks a lot of useful substances.
CREAM AND COTTAGE CHEESE
Ingredients of natural sour cream: normalized pasteurized cream, sourdough. Shelf life - up to two weeks.
Real cottage cheese contains milk and sourdough. When studying the composition of cottage cheese, one must pay special attention to the protein content, which is the most important component in this product. High-quality cottage cheese has a protein index of 14-18%. The fat content starts at a fat-free low (less than 1.8%) and goes up to 23%. The indicator of milk sugar varies in the range of 1.3-2.5%. All nutritionists recommend natural cottage cheese because of its high content of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, iron and amino acids (valine, leucine, lysine, methionine, tryptophan, threonine, phenylalanine).
Composition of natural cottage cheese: normalized pasteurized milk, sourdough. Shelf life - up to 7 days.
Choosing kefir, we try to get the most useful product, enriched with additives in the form of live microorganisms. On the label of kefir, you need to pay attention to the indicator of the number of lactic acid microorganisms, which must be at least 1x107 CFU / g (colony forming units per 1 gram of product). Yeast content - not less than 1x104 CFU/g of product.
Enriched with bifidobacteria, kefir turns into biokefir. The beneficial microorganisms contained in such a product work to strengthen the immune system, promote the synthesis of protein and vitamins K and B, have a beneficial effect on digestion and create a natural physiological barrier to toxic substances.
Composition of natural kefir: whole or normalized pasteurized milk, sourdough on kefir fungi.